Tag Archives: Xerxes
The Celebration of Purim
We have come to the discussion of the annual celebration of Purim that is celebrated on the 14th and 15th of Adar. For those in the rural areas it is the 14th while for those in the city it is the 15th. This is due to the extra day of fighting in the city of Susa, the city of the king in the time of the events.
They are days of rejoicing and celebration. Life has been granted. Life can once again be lived and lived to the full so there was feasting. God is praised and worshiped. The people once again begin to love, help and look out for each other’s daily needs in life. That is why they share portions of food – a daily need – with each other.
Mordecai then steps in again and with the power and position God has given him writes down the events and also sends a letter to all the Jews in the kingdom of Xerxes, even those in Israel, to instruct them to hold this celebration annually. They were to be remembered as days when mourning and sorrow were turned to gladness. God had given them rest from their enemies, true rest – a Sabbath rest. Yes, God is the one who gives rest, rest from work, rest from sin, rest from our enemies and from death – rest, peace and safety. This rest allowed them (and us) to live life the way God had always intended, truly devoted to Him, loving Him, worshiping Him and loving others. This life put Him and His kingdom first and seeks after His treasures.
The Jews were now free to live that life once again. Mordecai wants to make sure they understand that these days need to be remembered. However, full and complete rest had not yet come, the poor were (and are) still among them so Mordecai also calls on them to celebrate this rests with gifts to the poor.
As for the Jews, they did adhere to the words of Mordecai. They were thankful for his position in the kingdom and they praised God for it. In other words, they were not jealous of the position God had given him. God had done it for a reason just as He had with Joseph.
Judgment came to Haman, the enemy of the Jews, and to his son’s on the authority of the king. Our enemy and all his sons will also be defeated and judged by our King. Just as Haman’s schemes were turned on him so will the schemes of Satan be turned on him. Haman had used the pur, the lot, to decide the time and so the time would be named Purim. Only what the enemy meant for death and distruction would now be used for life and celebration. (Romans 8:28)
So because of what Mordecai had written to them and because of what they had seen and experienced themselves the Jews established and received this celebration for themselves, their seed and for all who allied themselves to them (all those who became Jews – for us this would be all of those brought into the nation of Israel as adopted sons and daughters by the blood of Yeshua our Messiah, our King). They would hold this celebration annually. The days of Purim were not to pass away or the memory of these days and from among their seed.
Then Queen Esther and Mordechai wrote with full authority of the kingdom another letter to the Jews. In other words, this was an official letter of court, of the court of Persia. This official letter was one of peace and truth regarding the events. Notice this, it was a letter of peace and truth, not one of confusion and lies. Yes, there would come a day when some would attempt to rewrite history and tell lies, but Queen Esther and Mordechai did everything within their power to make sure the truth was told all throughout the kingdom of the king.
Also, take note that the days of Purim were also entered into the official court records and that the Queen and Mordechai were not asking the rest of the Jews to do anything they themselves or their seed were not doing. Queen Esther and Mordechai knew these days well and had experienced the full brunt of them. They knew that not only were they now days of celebration, but also that many days of fasting and lamentation had preceded these days of celebration. They had been on their knees before God Almighty and he had heard their cry for help and they also wanted to make sure everyone remembered that as well. That is why they also gave instructions for the Jews to have days of fasting and lamentation before celebrating the festival of Purim, which they still do today. All of these customs for the celebration of Purim were established at the command of Queen Esther and written in the book. I believe the book that is spoken of here is the book we know of as Esther. That’s right, I believe the book known as Esther was written at her command and therefore bears her name.
Epilogue: Chapter 10 seems to read more like an epilogue written after the deaths of Xerxes and Mordechai. It acknowledges both men, but primarily Mordecai and the position he was given by Xerxes, second only to Xerxes, and how he was held in high esteem by his people. Mordecai was always looking out for the interests of his people and they knew it. He loved his nation and they loved him. And let this fact at the very end truly sink in, all these things were written in the annuals of the Kings of Media and Persia.
God be Praised,
The Events of Purim (estherslegacy.com)
The Events of Purim
We have finally reached the day that became known as Purim. It begins in chapter 9 with the giving of the date, Adar 13. As the text says the edict of the king, the first edict, had given the people of the kingdom the hope of overpowering the Jews. However, the tables had turned due to the edict written by Mordecai in the name of the King and now the Jews were the stronger.
All over the kingdom of King Xerxes the Jews gathered to defend themselves against those who hated them. The Jews that are mentioned here would not only include those natural born Jews, but also all those from other nationalities who had become Jews; their numbers had greatly increased.
There was also another factor involved in this battle, those who came to attack them were actually afraid of them. This reminds me of the account of Gideon when the Midianites actually attacked each other in their fear. There is also the account of when the Israelites were first entering the land of Israel and Rahab tells the two spies in Jericho that the hearts of the people were melting in fear because of them. They had heard what their God had done for them. Sound familiar? The people who attacked the Jews here in Esther might have come out to fight because of their hatred for the Jews, but they were also afraid of them because they knew what God had all ready done for them. So their hearts melted in fear and were defeated.
Scripture tells us in James 2:19 that even the demons tremble in fear. They know who God is and they know what he can do to them. Yet they still come out to fight. We also know from James 4:7 that when we submit to God and resist the devil he will flee from us. We see in Esther that the Jews had submitted to God and the enemy who is afraid of them is defeated.
Do you see the difference in the two types of fear that is mentioned? The first type of fear at the end of chapter 8 led to salvation while the second led to death. The first developed faith and love while the second flowed from hate. The first was out of a fear of the one true God and the other out of a fear of death and defeat. What a difference!
The nobles and officials of the kingdom even helped the Jews in their battle. Why? Because they feared Mordecai. I do not think this is the same fear as the one at the end of chapter 8 because there is no mention of them becoming Jews here. Rather their fear seems to have more to do with Mordecai’s power in the palace under Xerxes. Mordecai’s reputation went all throughout the land and his power increased greatly. You see, Mordecai had the king’s ear. They all knew of the influence Mordecai had. King Xerxes respected the views of Mordecai, if not sharing them himself, and took them to account. The fear here led to a respect of authority despite one’s own views.
The Jews were victorious over their enemies and even killed the sons of Haman and 500 men in the citadel of Susa itself. Please understand this. With all we have said above there were many in the citadel itself, where the King, Queen and Mordechai lived, that sought to kill the Jews. It would not surprise me if many of them were related to Xerxes, as well as, members of the Zoroastrian priesthood and if this was and unsuccessful coup. After all, if you are going to kill the Jews in the citadel would you not be going after the two most powerful Jews in the kingdom, the Queen and Mordechai, not to mention that Jew loving Xerxes who married not only outside the family but a Jewess and then aligned himself to her family instead of the other way around. If you are going to have any hope of survival in an attack in the citadel you are going for it all. You are going to kill the King.
When this is reported to Xerxes, I picture him in a war room getting updates on the battle, he turns to Esther his queen and makes a very interesting statement. Not only does he report the death of the five hundred and the 10 sons of Haman, but also wants to know how successful they had been in the rest of the kingdom. He and his wife are in this together. Then comes the ultimate statement and expression of love and trust. Xerxes says to Esther, “Now what is your petition? It will be given you. What is your request? It will also be granted.”(NIV) Did you catch it? We have seen Xerxes make similar statements before, yet this one stands apart. Do you see why? He places absolutely no limit on her petition or request. He simply says, before he hears it, it is yours. He stands unequivocally beside her with no reservations at all. The ultimate show of trust and love! She is the apple of his eye and he will withhold nothing from her. Let that picture wash over you and then remember our King lavished his love on us.
Esther wants complete victory, not just a partial one. She wants to make sure all those who hate her people are gone from Susa. She asks, “if it pleases the king”(NIV) for another day of fighting in Susa. She also asks for the sons of Haman to be displayed for all to see. She wants all to know what happens to those who would defy the living God. It is interesting to note that when Xerxes is killed in a coup led by Zoroastrian priests and family members about 10 years later that it does not take place in Susa.
And so it pleased the king to grant by his command and edict another day of fighting in Susa. While those in the provinces, which remember included Israel, rested and feasted with great joy on the 14th of Adar – after killing 75,000 on the 13th – the Jews in Susa assembled again to fight and killed another 300 men.
The Jews defeated their enemies but none of them laid their hands on the plunder. They were not after riches. They were after the right to live. They were after relief from their enemies. Yet God gave them a plunder they could have never imagined. Their tent had been enlarged with the coming in of new followers of Yahweh. He had truly blessed them with true fruit and a heart turned back to Him and His covenant.
May God rescue us from our enemy and enlarge our tent,
For The Fear of The Jews (estherslegacy.com)
For Her People (estherslegacy.com)
The King’s Pleasure and Displeasure
So King Xerxes and Haman once again go to dine with Queen Esther and after the meal while they are reclining drinking their wine, just as many today have coffee after a meal, the king once again addresses the queen. Wanting to finally hear her petition and request, he signaled to her that he is willing to grant it. Remember, he has had the entire evening to contemplate whether or not he would be willing to grant what was sure to be a large request, even up to half his kingdom. He must have loved and trusted her greatly to be willing to grant a large request before even hearing it.
Esther, the Queen, finally answers, but also prefaces her request. “If I have found favor with you, oh king, and if it pleases your majesty…” Remember our definition for favor and our discussion about being pleasing. Both of those things still apply. She is seeking his pleasure and reminding him that she does please him and is deserving of his favor and grace.
Then came the petition and request. She asks for her life and the sparing of her people. She is finally identifying who she really is to her own husband. She is a Jew. If her people have been sold to destruction, slaughter, and annihilation, then so has she. In doing so, she is choosing to stand with her people, which is more important to her than being the Queen of Persia.
Who will the king choose? The Jewish girl he married unknowingly or the Queen of Persia? Will he deny who she really is and deem her guilty of treason for deceiving the king?
Esther then says and does something profound – something other Jewish women of faith have done in the past. She is about to stand in the gap, so to speak, and give her husband a very strong warning. She is truly a daughter of Sarah and Rebekah. Think on that a moment and hopefully one day we can discuss that as well.
She carefully lets him know that if they had merely been sold as slaves she would have said nothing. But, then she begins to paint the real picture of danger that her husband has gotten himself into. This danger is the danger of incurring the wrath of God.
You see the words, “because no such distress would justify disturbing the king” could also be translated, “… but this adversary could not reckon the king’s loss.” I believe the latter to be the better and more accurate translation and it definitely fits the context of the whole book better.
Remember that Haman had offered to compensate the king through money and plunder for the annihilation of the Jews from his kingdom. Also remember that Esther even knows the amount Haman offered. However, that large earthly sum could not even begin to compare to the loss he would suffer at God’s hands for annihilating the people of God.
Also, notice the word “our”. She is not just saying that the enemy, Haman, is the adversary of her and the Jews, but of her husband as well.
Xerxes definitely gets the point and demands to know the identity of the adversary. Who is the man who would oppose my wife, my Queen and her people and dare to come between me and my wife? Who?
Esther then finally reveals the adversary and enemy. Note that both words from the Hebrew can be translated adversary or enemy. The one she would name is an enemy of enemies who is based on pure wickedness and evil. It is the wicked Haman.
It was Haman. The one Xerxes thought he could trust to have his back. The one he had trusted to not betray him when there seemed to be enemies all around. It was Haman who attempted to come between him and his wife and bring the wrath of God upon him. Is there any greater betrayal?
Let’s not forget that Haman is setting right there listening to the king and queen as they begin to understand together that Haman has betrayed them. You see, as long as they were apart and Esther was the only one knew the truth Haman was safe. However, Haman was in real danger after the King and Queen came together and worked together as one. Haman knew of the king’s love and respect for his wife and queen and that he would be willing to fight for her.
Make no mistake about it, our King is willing to fight and protect us as well. The enemy knows that when we stand with Yeshua, stand together as Yeshua’s Bride in His will, then he is in trouble. That is why he seeks to divide us so much and keep us separated from the will of our King. We too are in a battle of annihilation and we must stand together with our King and identify our true enemy and shine light into his darkness.
The enemy knows his fate and knows it has already been decided. Notice this was true of Haman as well and when the king gets up to leave in his rage, Haman begins to beg Esther for his life. I believe the king leaves to seek some self-control. He wants this rage and wrath to be properly directed and controlled.
Let’s also not forget how skillfully Esther handled this. Even though she made it clear that the king would suffer loss from incurring the wrath of God, she was very careful to point the responsibility and ultimate blame on Haman and not Xerxes. I think that is the real reason she had Haman come to these banquets, so that when she finally revealed the truth she would have the enemy to point directly to. I also find it interesting that Haman begs for his life from the one he sought to kill – knowingly or not.
Xerxes returned from the palace garden—where he had sought to think things through, to find Haman at the feet of his wife, a place that was forbidden to all except him. The passage says that he “fell” to her feet. I think you will find it interesting to know that the word “fell” can also be translated “to cast down oneself or lots, to die, to perish, to slay, or to smite out”. This whole business started with the casting of lots. I don’t think it is just a coincidence that that idea is also used here. Haman knows in order to live he must cast himself down and die to what he wanted.
Once again Xerxes’ anger or hot displeasure spikes again and he even accuses Haman of attempting to molest the Queen right under his nose. The word for “molest” can also be translated “to subjugate, to conquer, or to bring into bondage.” The king was very aware of the position Haman was taking and what he was trying to accomplish. His motives were clear. How brazen was this enemy?
It is at this point we realize Xerxes might not have left the room just to calm down, but also to bring attendants to arrest and execute Haman. We see Harbona, perhaps one of those who had escorted Haman to the banquet. This would have given him the opportunity to learn of the gallows Haman had been built for Mordecai. Harbona, speaks up and lets the king know about the gallows. Then Haman, who is now under a covering, hears the order of the king for him to be hung on those same gallows. The words his wife and friends had spoken to him of his ruin were quickly coming to pass.
Then the King’s anger subsided. This subsided anger was the idea of allaying ones passions through secreting them, it was a flood abated. The anger literally washed off of him. Now there was work to be done.
In the Name of our King,
- In the Presence of the King (estherslegacy.com)
- For Such a Time as This (estherslegacy.com)
Mordecai is Honored by the King
After the banquet Xerxes was unable to sleep. We could speculate that perhaps he was wondering what his bride would request of him because obviously this was not going to be a small thing. However, Scripture does not tell us why he could not sleep, but it does give us the result of that insomnia. Xerxes has the chronicles of his reign brought in to be read. Perhaps he was hoping he would find it easier to sleep after listening a while or perhaps he thought he might as well get some work done. Either way it was read that Mordecai had saved his life.
Notice that Xerxes is the one who asks if Mordecai had been honored for saving his life. When the answer of “no” comes back to him he genuinely desires to honor Mordecai. He also wants to make sure he does just the right thing to honor him. He wants some input and ideas from others. So he asks if there is someone in the court and, of course, Haman had just entered to ask if he could hang Mordecai. However, unbeknown to Haman he will indeed be discussing Mordecai, but in terms of honoring him not executing him.
Xerxes wants an honest opinion to his question of how to honor someone that the king delights to honor; so he does not give Haman the name of the man. Haman being an egotist thinks that naturally the king is meaning him and so gives the king a very elaborate plan for honoring someone.
Xerxes knew he could count on Haman for this and likes his idea. Here’s the kicker to Haman’s gut, the man the king delights to honor was not him, but his enemy Mordecai. Not only did Haman come up with the idea of how to honor Mordecai, but he would be the one to carry it out and parade Mordecai through the streets.
I love the sense of humor of our God. Remember, that Haman is the antagonist in our story. Haman had intended to make an example of Mordecai with an execution. Instead, he would make an example of him as someone honored by the king. God is very capable of turning the enemy’s plans upside down and making His people shine as the stars instead of being extinguished by the enemy.
The enemy here is humiliated by having to parade Mordecai on the king’s horse while wearing the king’s robe. But that was not all. Haman himself would robe Mordecai. In other words, he would serve Mordecai. What a humiliation.
As we study this we must understand the theological truth within this passage. For the hearer it seems like all is lost. Haman is about to get his way and kill Mordecai. It is at that moment that the king steps in to honor him. Our King wants to see His people robed for His glory. He wants us to shine and be the light of the world, because the light we reflect is His.
Let’s break this down. We are to put on our new selves or the Lord Jesus Christ. Just as Mordecai was clothed in the king’s robe so when we put on our new selves we are putting on Yeshua our King. We are made into His image in righteousness and holiness (Ephesians 4 & Colossians 3). We are then lead by God Himself “in triumphal procession in Christ” (II Corinthians 2:14).
Mordecai is led through the streets in the name of the king. Granted, Haman leading Mordecai is not the same as God leading us, but then again even though we see truths in this account it is not a perfect parallel. I believe for Haman this was part of God making him His footstool (Psalm 110). For Haman set a trap that he himself was falling into and he would fall hard (Psalm 57:6 & Proverbs 28:10). The one who set out to destroy the Jews, God’s people, was indeed to be made the servant of God’s people, a sign of cursing.
This was a sure sign that God was working and about to deliver His people. But notice that Mordecai does not proudly declare victory yet among his people. Instead he returns to the city gate where he had gone to fast, pray and mourn. He did not stop appealing to God, but persevered in his appeal. Allow me to give an example. Let’s say you are in a strange town with your family and having car trouble. Your husband must go into a potentially dangerous situation to get the car to the place that can help, so you begin to pray. Once you hear from him and know that God is answering your prayer for his safety do you stop praying or continue until you see him walk in the door? You continue to pray for God’s protection until he walks in the door. That is what Mordecai is doing. He does see God working, but still continues to pray and watch.
Meanwhile, Haman and those connected to him definitely see the writing on the wall. They know the reputation of the God of the Jews and know His hand is against Haman. Here we see the enemy experiencing the fear of the Jews and knowing he is in real trouble and will come to ruin. When something happens in the book of Esther through God’s people, the Jews, it is clear that it is God doing the work. Again, God’s people are a reflection of the One True God. Their actions, the actions of God’s people, are not seen as their own, but as those of their King.
And the king’s eunuchs come and quickly take Haman into the presence of the king.
May We Truly Reflect His Glory,
Enter Hamen (estherslegacy.com)
Mordecai’s Declaration (estherslegacy.com)
In the Presence of the King
Esther had asked Mordecai to have all the Jews of Susa fast for her for three days. She would also fast for three days along with her maids. At the end of this time of fasting she would go before King Xerxes. She was resolved that if she perished, she perished. This is where chapter 5 of Esther picks up.
“On the third day Esther put on her royal robes and stood in the inner court the palace, in front of the the king’s hall. The king was sitting on his royal throne in the hall, facing the entrance. When he saw Queen Esther standing in the court, he was pleased with her and held out to her the gold scepter that was in his hand. So Esther approached and touched the tip of the scepter.” (NIV)
Did you catch it? Esther had asked Mordecai to fast for three days and it was on the third day that she adorns herself in her royal robes. Allow me to point out that it was also on the third day that Jesus rose from the dead and thereby was adorned in His royal robes. What a picture! Especially considering the time of year it was, right around Passover and Pentecost and what is after Passover, Feast of First Fruits or Resurrection Sunday.
Yes, Esther approaches King Xerxes with boldness and fear, knowing her life is in the hands of God alone. She approaches him in her royal best on the last day of the fast. She comes to the court and waits to be noticed by Xerxes. She is not pushing her way in past other royal officials, but quietly stands and waits for her husband to notice her. She has approached the throne with dignity and grace.
The king does notice his bride. He see his Queen standing in his court and that pleases him. Xerxes holds out the scepter and in that moment Esther’s life is spared. She approaches her husband, her king, and touches the scepter. God is revealing Himself to her. God does have a plan and He is setting it in motion, and doing it through her.
I want to discuss what Esther has just done. She has taken great care in approaching her king. Here is the question, do we take such care in approaching our King? After all, our King is King of kings and Lord of lords. In discussing this I want to look at Daniel 7:9-14 to see what it says about the throne room of our God. Beginning in verse nine it says,”As I looked, thrones were set in place, and the Ancient of Days took his seat. His clothing was as white as snow; the hair of his head was white like wool. His throne was flaming with fire, and its wheels were all ablaze. A river of fire was flowing, coming out from before him. Thousands upon thousands attended him; ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him. The court was seated, and the books were open. Then I continued to watch because of the boastful words the horn was speaking. I kept looking until the beast was slain and its body destroyed and thrown into the blazing fire. (The other beasts had been stripped of their authority, but were allowed to live for a period of time.) In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence. He was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all peoples, nations and men of every language worshiped him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed.”
Now does this courtroom sound like a place where one can be cavalier? You are absolutely correct, it is not that kind of place. This is the ultimate courtroom and it is no mortal king who sits on the throne. This throne is occupied by God himself. He is the only One who can hold out that gold scepter and his scepter is His Son at His right hand. We may only approach the throne if we have held out our hand to touch Yesuah. In other words, to take Him as our Lord and Savior.
Then comes the next point. Esther approached her king very carefully and in her royal best, but how do we? In Revelation 19 the bride is given her royal robes to wear at the wedding of the Lamb. The royal robes are fine linen and represent the righteous acts of the saints. In other words, our royal robes represent our obedience to the acts He has prepared in advance for us to do (Ephesians 2:10). Thereby making our obedience to our King equivalent with wearing our royal best.
Hebrews 4:16 says, “Let us then approach the throne of grace with confidence, so that we may receive mercy and find grace to help us in our time of need. The word here for “confidence” means to have all outspokenness, frankness, bluntness, publicity, assurance, bold, confidence, freedom, openness, and plainness. We are to approach the throne with boldness and assurance so that we can freely and openly speak to our God. However, it does not mean we can do this in a cavalier way.
Ephesians 3:12 says, “In him and through faith in him we may approach with freedom and confidence.” The word in this verse for “freedom” is that same word used for confidence in the Hebrew passage above. However, the word used for “confidence” is another word, which means reliance, confidence or trust. We have this reliance or this sacred trust to know that when we come before God and we are in Him and our faith is in Him He hears us.
I want to look at some more verses, so please bear with me today. I truly believe this is an important topic because we far too often approach God casually and really with very little thought as to whom we are approaching and where we truly are, His courtroom. The first one I want to look at is John 14:12 – 16 which states,”I tell you the truth, anyone who has faith in me will do what I have been doing. He will do even greater things than these, because I am going to the Father. And I will do whatever you ask in my name, so that the Son may bring glory to the Father. You may ask me for anything in my name, and I will do it. If you love me you will obey what I command. And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Counselor to be with you forever”.
I love these verses and the truth is that in most of our Bibles such as the NIV, which I have quoted here, separate these verses right in the middle. When these verses are separated we do not get the importance of the second part, which is to obey His command. Yes, we do have confidence and freedom in approaching our King, but we are also to put on our best, and what is our best? It is our obedience.
Now let’s look at another verse and John 16:23-24 that says, “In that day you will no longer ask me anything. I tell you the truth, my Father will give you whatever you ask in my name. Until now you have not asked for anything in my name. Ask and you will receive, and your joy will be complete.”
Know this, that in order to ask in the name of Yeshua we must not be disgracing or taking His name in vain. This is foundational. We can not expect to receive what we ask if we are disobedient children who also blaspheme the name of Yeshua. And to be sure that we all understand what this means, let me be clear. We often think of blasphemy or taking the Lord’s name in vain as something we say and yes, it can mean that. We must also keep in mind that it is also about how we live the life we say belongs to Him. If we are living a disobedient life as His child we take His name with us into disgrace, let it never be. If we live that life of disobedience we can be sure He will not hear our plea in His court until we allow Him to deal with the topic of our disobedience.
There are many other verses on this subject in Scripture that I would hope you would take the time to look up. As you look at more verses you will find that in coming to the throne room we approach God with rejoicing and confidence in him, asking in his name and will. The requirement is always our obedience to all that He has commanded, which is to believe in Him and to love one another.
So, before we get back to Esther let me recap a little. When we approach our King we must realize that we are in the courtroom of The King and that His court is in session. We may approach Him with confidence and freedom. We must also be in our best, true obedience or humility ready to confess our disobedience. And as I Peter 4:7 says we must “be clear minded and self-controlled” so that we can pray.
Now, let’s get back to Esther. The fast Esther called Mordecai and the Jews to participate in was a fast with a purpose, it had a focus. It was not just a general mourning, wailing, fasting and call for deliverance, but it was very focused and specific on where the deliverance would come from. There was now a plan for deliverance in place or at least the person, Esther. So she approaches the King. She is clear minded and self-controlled about who she is to be in his presence and what she wants from him. She makes her request. She asks for Xerxes and Haman to come to a banquet that she has prepared.
Xerxes had told her that even up to half the kingdom it would be hers. This was not, as we will see later, just a euphemism, but dare I say it, a limitation. Keep this in mind for later in the book. However, she does not ask for half the kingdom, but for him and Haman to come to a banquet.
So the question is, why did she need to go to court to invite Xerxes and Haman to a banquet? It was necessary because what she would eventually discuss with Xerxes was a matter of official Persian business, the edict to annihilate the Jews. However, she knew that she must handle the situation with care and love. Yes, it was a matter of official Persian business, but it was also personal in that she was about to reveal something about herself to her husband, that up to this point she had kept secret. She would have to tell Xerxes that she was a Jew. Do you see the problem? She had to tell her husband in a loving way that he had made a big mistake, dispatching the edict to annihilate her people, and at the same time not point the finger at him. I believe that is why she also invited the enemy. She needed someone else to point the finger at.
However, at this banquet she does not reveal her petition, but states,”If the king regards me with favor and if it pleases the king to grant my petition and fulfill my request, let the king and Haman come tomorrow to the banquet I will prepare for them. Then I will answer the king’s question.”
Can you hear it? She is basically saying that if Xerxes really loves her then he needs to give careful thought to whether or not to grant her request because this ones going to be a doozy. Xerxes must be resolved to answer her request, her petition, with a resounding yes if at all possible because this request will by no means be a small thing.
It is at this point that Haman goes home to brag, but is again confronted with the presence of Mordecai at the king’s gate and Mordecai does not acknowledge him at all. This riles him to no end. He wants to brag about his day and yet he cannot get Mordecai out of his mind. So his wife, whose name we ironically have, Zeresh, along with his friends and relatives tell him to hang Mordecai on the gallows. So Haman has them erected.
We will discuss what happens next time.
In the presence of our King,
For Such a Time as This (estherslegacy.com)
Upon hearing that Mordecai was a Jew, Haman set out to do to Mordecai’s people what the Jews were supposed to have done to his. He wants to completely annihilate them from the Empire.
Haman had taken notice that Mordecai did not give the worship he thought he was due him from the king’s command. This was bad enough, but b/c of Haman’s history with the Jews, Mordecai’s actions put his entire people in jeopardy. To me, this implies that if Mordecai had been from any other ethnic group, only he would have been punished and his people spared.
Haman’s actions constitute
a full scale invasion into the homes and lives of every Jew throughout the Empire, no matter how old or young. Haman is truly playing the role of their ultimate enemy. He is easily a Hitler of his day. Remember that Jesus in John 10:10 says that the enemy comes to “steal, kill, and destroy”. That is just what Haman set out to do. Chapter 3 calls on everyone to “destroy, kill, and annihilate” as well as to take the plunder of the Jews. Does that sound anything like, “steal, kill, and destroy”?
It is the first month of the Jewish year, the month of Nissan, when Haman puts this plan in motion and casts the lots (purim) in order to determine when the people of the kingdom could destroy the Jews. I find it interesting that in the text this is done before Haman goes to Xerxes. Haman wants everything s in place and ready to go forward once the king gave his approval.
Do you remember in the book of Proverbs, it says that the casting of the lot is determined by God. Here we see that proverb coming to life. Why would I say that? Notice the time
the destruction of the Jews was to take place. It was in the final Jewish month of the year, Adar. That’s right. God made sure that the Jews had a full year for things to fall in to place as God wanted them to. No one knew what God was up to, but of course, He did. God had a plan of His own that was being set in motion. And yes, God was using what Haman thought were his own clever plans to do His own will in the life of His people.
Then Haman goes to Xerxes. Keep in mind what we have discussed before, that Xerxes was trying to find someone whom he could trust. Someone who would watch is back from possible assassination and treachery. Haman was the one Xerxes had placed that trust in to protect himself and his kingdom. Haman uses just that to get Xerxes to sign off on his plan. Haman tells Xerxes that there are those in his kingdom who are separate (they do not see themselves as Persians) and have different customs than the rest of the kingdom, including, of course, their religion. In other words, their supreme allegiance was not to Xerxes – they answered to someone else. However, that was not all. Haman specifically mentioned that they did not follow the king’s commands.
Now, if you remember from chapter one, that even
Queen Vashti was not exempt from obeying the command of the king and for her disobedience she was banished from the king’s presence. How much more severe would the punishment be for those not even related to the king (little did he know).
Here Mordecai is definitely seen as the peoples’ representative. If Mordecai did not obey then neither would the people. This is definitely seen as a danger by Xerxes. So he listens.
Haman tells Xerxes that it is not beneficial to him to keep these people around. Part of the benefit he is discussing here is a financial benefit, (remember they lost the war with Greece and it would have cost them a great deal financially – Here Haman is offering a way to get some of that back) which makes his next comment very interesting. He offers money into the treasury to finance the operation. He even gives a specific amount, ten thousand talents. Notice the language that Haman uses here. “If it pleases the king”. We have seen this language before. It is up to the pleasure of the king to give final approval or not.
Everything Haman has to say speaks right to the heart of Xerxes. The protection of his life, his kingdom, and a way to get back much of the financial loss he suffered from the war. Were these things enough to warrant such an action. For Xerxes the answer is yes.
The decree is written in every language of the kingdom and sent to every province. Notice the date. This decree was written in the languages of the Empire on the thirteenth of Nissan, the day before Passover. With that being the case it is reasonable to assume that the day that Susa heard the news was indeed Passover. Talk about bewilderment. On one of the most holy days in the life of a Jew they would learn in the city of Susa that all Jews would be annihilated by the hands of their neighbors.
Keep in mind this was a command of the king, which would have made it a crime for the non-Jewish people to disobey. I am sure there were many who immediately began to think about their options, would they obey or risk punishment for disobedience just as many did during World War II in Europe.
While the rest of the city was bewildered, Xerxes and Haman sat calmly drinking together. No doubt Haman was feeling as if he had put one over on Xerxes and feeling proud and successful, while
Xerxes would feel safe and protected.
Ironic, isn’t it, the snake was actually in the room with him and not out there. The one Xerxes should have feared and rejected was the one whom he thought he could trust. Isn’t the enemy clever. I believe that is what it says about him right off the bat in Scripture, that he was clever.
We must always be alert and on guard for the schemes of the enemy. We must be dressed in full armor. The enemy is clever and he is more then willing to wait until we are off guard and in a place where we even feel safe. Then he attacks.
Yes, Haman was clever and played right into the concerns of Xerxes. May I even say into his legitimate concerns. The enemy knows just how to play us. The question is, when we fall for it can we end up doing the right thing? Did Xerxes in the end get it right? Did he become stiffnecked like Pharaoh or will he become someone willing to listen like David did with Nathan?
Remember, Esther and Xerxes have been married about 4 to 5 years at this point. She is still very much a part of his life and for all we know a mother at this point. Next, we will narrow the parameters from all of Susa being bewildered to Mordecai then back into the palace itself with Esther’s reaction.
- Enter Hamen (estherslegacy.com)
- Mordecai’s Declaration (estherslegacy.com)
Before I begin today I must tell you that when I do this lesson as a Bible study it is usually the whole chapter and it is done in a two hour setting. I typically begin this lesson by saying something like, “this is the downer week when we have to study the enemy”.
In this post, however, I will only be looking at the very first verse of chapter 3 to give a good understanding of who Haman was and where he was coming from. We will look at the rest of the chapter in the next post.
Esther 3:1 “After these events, King Xerxes honored Haman son of Hammedatha, the Agagite, elevating him and giving him a seat of honor higher than that of all the other nobles.” (NIV)
“After these events” indicates that this took place after Mordecai had saved Xerxes life from the assassination attempt. The two who plotted to take Xerxes life are named leading outsiders to believe that their names meant something to the original readers, perhaps members of the royal family or at least highly connected to the family since they also made these plans at the king’s gate. The truth behind those men has been lost to history, yet the events they put in place triggers the exaltation of another person in the king’s court.
Haman and his elevation is interesting since we can plainly see that he is not of royal blood. If you recall from chapter one, all the advisers that Xerxes turned to for advice on what to do with Vashti were relatives. Now Xerxes has married a woman whose ancestry he does not know and at least two possible relatives try to take his life.
Where does he turn from here? Who does he trust? Remember, we have made the point several times that Xerxes is looking for a home for his heart, he is looking for someone he can trust, trust with his life. One can assume that considering the words, “After these events”, that Haman had something to do with the investigation of the two that attempted to take the life of the king.
At this point it is not Mordecai that Xerxes chooses to trust. Instead, by elevating Haman, it’s safe to make the assumption that Haman was already higher up within the court than Mordecai.
Perhaps Xerxes and Haman already have a personal repor. In any case, Xerxes chooses to trust Haman to be his second in command. He is trusting him with his life. He is trusting him to protect him from anyone else who would try to take his life.
Remember Haman is not Median or Persian, not a member of the royal family, at least by blood, and therefore he is not a threat. He would not be someone after the throne and therefore could be trusted.
At least that seems to be what Xerxes assumed. He assumed he was safe with Haman and so was his throne. In other words, his administration was safe with Haman looking after things because Haman had no obvious motive. Xerxes saw Haman as an outsider who was a safe choice.
Then there is the other side of Haman… how Mordecai would have known him due to the history between their peoples.
Haman is an Agagite and therefore an Amalekite, thereby a descendent of Esau (Genesis 36:12).
This takes us back to I Samuel 15 when Saul was told to go in and destroy the Amalekites whose king was Agag, but he did not. God had told him to do so because of how they attacked the Israelites as they came up out of Egypt. If you recall this was when Joshua was leading the Israelite army and Moses was up on a hill with Hur and Aaron holding up his arms in Exodus 17.
Haman, in other words, was from the royal family of the Amalekites that somehow survived Saul’s attack. Mordecai would have been very aware of this history and would have known that Haman was dangerous and not worthy of trust.
So from the very beginning of this account in Esther, just from Haman’s ancestry we have two very different perspectives of him.
Xerxes chooses to trust him, but Mordecai knows better than to place his trust in this person that was from an accursed lineage (Genesis 17:14-16). Yes, God had said He would always, “from generation to generation”, be at war with Haman’s people, the Amalekites.
That meant that as a child of Israel, as part of God’s people, that he, Mordecai, was also at war with Haman. This automatically put Haman and Mordecai in opposite camps and from there their story only escalates.
Knowing in Whom I trust,
Mordecai Saves the King
Esther 2:19 When the young women were assembled together for a second time, Mordecai was sitting at the King’s Gate. 20 Esther still had not revealed her birthplace or her ethnic background, as Mordecai had directed. She obeyed Mordecai’s orders, as she always had while he raised her. 21 During those days while Mordecai was sitting at the King’s Gate, Bigthan and Teresh, two eunuchs who guarded the king’s entrance, became infuriated and planned to assassinate King Ahasuerus (Xerxes). 22 When Mordecai learned of the plot, he reported it to Queen Esther, and she told the king on Mordecai’s behalf. 23 When the report was investigated and verified, both men were hanged on the gallows. This event was recorded in the Historical Record in the king’s presence.(HCSB)
Here we see that the king’s attendants had not stopped bringing in young women for the harem even though a new queen had been selected. We must remember this was a pagan empire with a pagan king. We must also remember that even in Israel the kings had concubines and multiple wives. The mentioning of the young women still being brought in is meant to do nothing other than to tell us the time period that this event takes place.
We also see that it was in the first five years of Esther’s reign. We know that she has not yet told Xerxes her true identity. Even though she is Queen of the Persian Empire she still obeys her father as if she still lived in his house. Again we are reminded of the deep relationship of trust and loyalty that this father and daughter have with one another. Not only was she not willing to assert her independence from Mordecai as a grown woman with a home of her own, but she was also not willing to exert her authority as his queen over him. To Esther, Mordecai would always be her father and elder regardless of her position. This stands is such stark contrast to how so many of us treat our fathers and elders today. Her attitude toward Mordecai also sets the stage for how things are played out later.
It was when the young women come in a second time, during the first five years of Esther’s reign, that Mordecai is sitting at the king’s gate. This location indicated that he had a position of some responsibility.
Remember he lives in the citadel and obviously has some type of responsibility around the king’s officials, if not around the king himself. While he was sitting at the king’s gate, two eunuchs who guarded the entrance planned an assassination on King Xerxes. For some reason, unknown to the readers, these two eunuchs had become angry with the king and wanted to retaliate. Many have speculated that they were angry that a new queen had been chosen and Vashti had been deposed. Regardless of the reason, they planned to kill Xerxes.
Somehow Mordecai learns of the plot, either by hearing it himself or someone else reporting it to him. If it is reported to him it may speak of the importance of his position at the gate. Mordecai then takes this information to Queen Esther. We do not know if he reported this information to her personally. If he did, it was in the capacity as an official at the king’s gate, not her father.
We do know that Xerxes mother, Atossa, had set up a Queen’s Court for herself. It may be that this tradition was continued in the reign of Esther and that Mordecai’s information was reported to her at her own court. In other words, in an official capacity. Esther in turn takes this information to Xerxes, giving Mordecai the credit for the information. And since the matter is investigated, we can assume it was taken to Xerxes at the king’s court, again in an official capacity. Doing things in a court setting was very important in Persia and therefore to our understanding of this book.
These two eunuchs were than found to be guilty and hung.
Remember this was done at court so it went into the official records of the king. Not only did it go into the king’s own official records, but it gave Mordecai the credit. As we know, this comes into the story again later. One might assume that since it was something investigated and recorded at court that Mordecai himself may have been interviewed at court about the information. This would have given Xerxes a personal encounter with Mordecai. However, to our knowledge this may or may not have been the first time the two had met.
Therefore this experience did three things. It saved the life of the king. It more than likely allowed Mordecai and Xerxes to meet. Finally, it put Mordecai into the official records of the king, perhaps for the first time. This helps set things up for later.
We must not forget that this encounter also says something about the relationship that the king and queen had with each other. Xerxes obviously took the report from his wife seriously enough to have it investigated. A trust has begun to build in them for each other. A trust that will serve them well later in their marriage.
Esther has left the world of childhood behind and is now a queen and she lived that life with dignity and grace. She was the Queen of Persia, but first of all a child of Israel and the God of Israel.
- Upon Xerxes’ Return (estherslegacy.com)
- Xerxes’ Past (estherslegacy.com)
- Vashti’s Fall (estherslegacy.com)